Office Flora – Hiromi Nishiwaki – 将軍 (Shogun) and Fountain Pen 😊🌈🗾
Today I write about Shogun!
Crest of Tokugawa Clan
time line of Shogun
It was Nara period (710 to 794) that first shogun appeared in Japan.
Although it is not very clear, Tajihi no Agatamori, (668-737) is considered as the first shogun.
However, it is clear, that most famous Shogun in early days, was Sakanoueno Tamuramaro (坂上田村麻呂-758 – 811) who was appointed by Emperor Kanmu in 797 as Sei-i Taishōgun (征夷大将軍, "Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Force Against the Barbarians")
Originally Shogun was a title, conferred by employer to a chief military commander temporary (not permanently), when Nara/Kyoto based imperial court dispatched military force, to northern region of Japan, to suppress the enemy, called Emishi (蝦夷 ) .
*Emishi - A indigenous ethnic group who lived in Tohoku region (Northern part of Japan).
They are often thought to have descended from some tribes of the Jomon People (14,000–300 BCE.)
Some historians believe that they were related to the Ainu people.(indigenous people in Hokkaido)
In Short, I would say Shogun was a servant for the emperor and the court.
It was a emperor and the court which had an authority.
Aterui - The greatest Chief of Emishi -(He was an enemy for the court and emperor, however, he was a greatest Hero for people in Tohoku)
Please read also : http://p-www.iwate-pu.ac.jp/~acro-ito/Japan_pics/Japan_MZS/Aterui.html
征 (sei,せい) means "conquer" or "subjugate," and 夷 (i, い) means "barbarian" or "savage." 大 (dai, だい) means "great," 将 (shō, しょう) means "commander," and 軍 (gun, ぐん) means "army." Thus, a literal translation of Seii Taishōgun would be "Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Force Against the Barbarians."
At the same time, Military class (i.e. Samurai class) emerged in Heian Period (794 -1185) to protect nobles and their manors and grew up to be powerful enough to appear political stage.
Minamoto Clan (Genji 源氏) and Taira Clan (Heike 平家) is the two powerful Clan.
It is very interesting that actually they were also descendant of imperial family member.
It was Taira Clan which established first Samurai-Dominated administrative government, through the victory of Hogen (1156) and Heiji (1159) rebellions.
Taira no Kiyomori (平 清盛, 1118 – 1181) was the first de facto ruler of Japan from Samurai Class.
He was appointed as Daijo-daijin (太政大臣, "Chancellor of the Realm") in 1167 by emperor and thus, he was de facto administrator of the imperial government.
Taira no Kiyomori (平 清盛, 1118 – 1181)
Later, Genpei war (源平合戦) (1180 -1185) broke out between these clans, and Minamoto Clan was the winner.
And in 1185, Kamakura shogunate, the first Shogunate government was established, as the founder, Minamoto no Yoritomo was appointed as Shogun, chief military commander by Emperor Gotoba (後鳥羽) in 1192.
Note : 1. This time Emperor was a nominal ruler, although they had authority to appoint Shogun.
2. From Kamakura period, title of Shogun became hereditary, not temporary like Nara and Heian period.
-This is the beginning of Samurai Government. Samurai governed japan for almost 700 years from 1185 to 1868, till Meiji Restoration.
Minamoto no Yoritomo - Founder of Kamakura Shogunate
1887 - Chikanobu, Toyohara - Wives of the Tokugawa Shogunate
List of the Tokugawa Shoguns
- Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616), ruled 1603-1605.
- Tokugawa Hidetada (1579-1632), ruled 1605-1623.
- Tokugawa Iemitsu (1604-1651), ruled 1623-1651.
- Tokugawa Ietsuna (1641-1680), ruled 1651-1680.
- Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (1646-1709), ruled 1680-1709.
- Tokugawa Ienobu (1662-1709), ruled 1709-1712.
- Tokugawa Ietsugu (1709-1716), ruled 1713-1716.
- Tokugawa Yoshimune (1684-1751), ruled 1716-1745.
- Tokugawa Ieshige (1711-1761), ruled 1745-1760.
- Tokugawa Ieharu (1737-1786), ruled 1760-1786.
- Tokugawa Ienari (1773-1841), ruled 1787-1837.
- Tokugawa Ieyoshi (1793-1858), ruled 1837-1853.
- Tokugawa Iesada (1824-1858), ruled 1853-1858.
- Tokugawa Iemochi (1846-1866), ruled 1858-1866.
- Tokugawa Yoshinobu (1837-1913), ruled 1867-1868.
Fountain Pen Love Pink Bungubox
Thank you for reading! 読んでくれてありがとう！see you soon! またね！ Hiromi Nishiwaki
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